THE DRAPER UTAH HISTORICAL SOCIETY
PEOPLE OF DRAPER III 1849-1932
Stories and Lore of a Bygone Draper
by the Draper Historical Society Book III Committee
THE AKAGI FARM IN DRAPER, UTAH
"Jack" Akagi was born in Okayama, Japan. In 1910 he married Masano Takehara, also from Okayama. The young couple left their families and moved to the United States of America where Jack worked as a nurseryman and caretaker of large fruit orchards in Lindsay, California.
Nelson Akagi. Double click for larger image.
They raised eight children (four boys and four girls.) The oldest two children were twin brothers, Utaka and Tamotsu (Thomas), born in 1915. Another brother, Harry, was born in 1921 and the youngest son, Nelson, was born in 1923. All of the children were naturally born American citizens. In 1934 the family had worked and saved to purchase a 52-acre farm and nursery of their own in Lindsay, California.
In 1942, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the American citizens in California with perceived enemy ancestry were declared enemy aliens and stripped of their American citizenship. The War Relocation Authority immediately directed and supervised the "voluntary" evacuation of Japanese-Americans from their homes in California. The day before the Akagi family planned to harvest the crop on their 52-acre farm, the WRA arrived at their home with armed soldiers ordered the family to leave immediately. Jack and Masano were then over 50 years old and their son, Thomas, was then married with a six-month old baby boy. They were only allowed to take one suitcase per family member. The family was transported by bus and finally ended up in Sugar City, Idaho. The Akagi family would never again see their farm in California. They lost the farm, their home, cars, etc., all to the WRA.
The youngest son, Nelson Akagi, later received a letter from the United States Draft Board informing him that he was of age to serve in the military but would not be drafted because he was no longer an American citizens and was considered to be an "enemy alien." Nonetheless, the Draft Board informed him that he could "volunteer" for military service. Nelson was anxious to demonstrate his great love and loyalty to America. He enlisted in the army and was promptly sent to the front lines in the World War II European conflict. He served honorably in the 442nd Regiment. This regiment received a total of 18,143 individual decorations for valor and are the most decorated unit for its size and duration of service in the history of the United States. Nelsons brother, Harry, also followed him into battle as a World War II soldier.
Determined to move forward after the war ended the Akagis rented a farm in Sandy, Utah, and grew strawberries. The family worked and saved for three years. The four Akagi brothers pooled their funds and were able to make a down payment on a 65-acre farm in Draper, Utah, in 1947. The farm included a historic Victorian home, built in 1898, at 13200 South 1482 East in Draper.
The early years of the farm were very difficult. They first attempted to establish a market for strawberries but there was simply too much competition from California growers who were able to ship their strawberries to the local grocers. When the strawberry market failed they tried other types of fruit farming. It took much faith and patience to plant small tree starts throughout the farm since it would take several years to recognize a harvest. The predominant crop was apples, peaches, pears and an imported Asian or "Apple Pear" (Nashi".) As the peach and apple trees aged the berries had to be pulled out, the vacant ground was replaced with tomato plants. The nearby deer population, however, caused them to later give up on row crops.
The Akagi children attended the Park School in Draper and went on to Jordan High School in Sandy. Nelson was still working on the farm at age 74 and Utaka was 82 and still helping family members farm.
In recent years, the Akagi family has found that the old family farm is sadly becoming a thing of the past. Today, the younger generation of Akagi family members have obtained an education, skills and chosen careers of their own. There are no more family members to carry on the work on the farm.
The farm provided the Akagi family with a closeness many never experience. The family worked together and then played together, building strong family ties.
When Utake and Nelson Akagi are asked what they loved most about Akagi Farm with its beautiful mountain views and scattered fruit orchards, they speak of its scenery, tranquility and pleasant setting.
Tom & Utake. Double click for larger image.
They love the distinctness of the four seasons, as they clearly appear each year on the farm. They recall sweet family moments together and the joy of working and playing together as a family.
Over the past 50 years, the Akagis have enjoyed the quaintness, congeniality and friendliness of the people who live in Draper. These qualitites make up what we commonly refer to as the "Draper lifestyle." The history and traditions of Draper run very deep and the Akagi family has contributed to that legacy of small town values.
Submitted by Nelson Akagi
Ed. Note: The Akagi Farm provided young boys and girls in the community with seasonal jobs. Each year they looked forward to earning the much-needed money to buy their school clothes. More information is available in the Draper Historical Library.
DRAPER/ALPINE TUNNEL PROJECT
The Draper/Alpine tunnel was drilled as part of the Salt Lake Aqueduct project. The project consisted of installing a pipe from Deer Creek Reservoir to Salt Lake City and other water delivering facilities en route.
Double click for larger image.
The project started in December 1938. The first 2000 feet was drilled in silica which is relatively soft. Because of the soft silica, the tunnel was lined with a steel frame and a lagging behind it. Still the drilling was done in record time.
Hard rock was the next section of drilling and slowed the progress of the tunnel. This hard rock material lasted for only a few hundred feet.
Softer earth with water dripping from the roof and walls was next to be drilled. The water had to be collected and pumped through a pipe to the outside of the tunnel.
After a few thousand feet more of drilling was completed before another change of ground composition and large quantities of water which caused the steel on the sides and roof of the mine to twist. It would be squeezed and pushed together by the extreme water pressure.
The job was shut down while a decision was made on what type of braces would best stop the crushing and twisting of the steel. The decision was to use much heavier steel to brace the base of the support system.
The heavier steel did not work. The bolts at the top and bottom of the support would pop and break like match sticks. The steel still twisted into grotesque shapes. Water still continued to be a problem. The result was another shut down.
The next solution was a liner of steel. It was made of nine pieces bolted in a nine-foot circle. This solution also failed. It was also the cause of much concern for the miners. The bolts holding the pieces together would break and the steel pieces would be twisted and squeezed together. Torches were required to cut through the steel to facilitate the removal from the work area.
The next solution was to drill the bore hole larger and then install the liner plates. The area between the plate and the tunnel wall was then filled with 2 ½ inch rock. Through holes in the liner a mixture of cement, water and calcium chloride was pumped into the rock to make concrete. This process held for a short distance. Then the same squeeze would twist the steel. The distortion was so great that you could not move through the twisted liner.
The problem resulted in another shut down. More ideas were sought as solutions. It was decided to dig the bore hole even larger and to install 12" x 12" timbers to create a brace. The timbers were cut at angles to make a natural resistance against the wall behind the timber frame. The liner plate was then placed inside of the timber frame. Rock or gravel was again put between the liner and the timber braces.
Water, cement and calcium chloride was again pumped into the rock to make concrete. The chemicals combined to generate much heat in the steel liner making the work hot and miserable. It was also a very slow process. However, about two hundred feet of this type of construction ended the problem.
After all of the above mentioned experiences, it was determined that the problem was caused by a great force of water pressure inside the mountain.
The remainder of the drilling was accomplished with little or no trouble. The two crews, one from the Draper side and one from the Alpine side, met somewhere near the center of the mountain. The engineers determined that the two bores were only off by two inches where the crews met.
The next phase of the project was to install a six foot diameter pipe to take water through the mountain. Several sets of collapsible steel frames, mounted to move on rails, were centered in the tunnel bore. Concrete was then blown around the frames. Air pressure forced the concrete through a pipe behind the frames. As one section of frames provided support for drying cement, another section would be readied for the next pour. This part of the project took several months and completed the tunnel project.
The recollection of the pay scale is as follows:
Brakeman on the train crew $
Many Draper residents were hired during the time of the total job. I worked there for about 18 months in 1939 and 40. These are my memories of the tunnel project.
Dan L. Smith
Ed. Note: For more information on the Draper/Alpine Tunnel refer to The History of Draper, Utah Volume Two, pages 301-303.
Interview with Willard B. Enniss, native son, born in Draper, Utah, 1857. Daughters of Utah Pioneers. Related in 1936. (Read about the book compiled by his son Noel in 2004.)
Cooking Father (John Enniss) and mother's first stove I cannot remember very well. It was a little step stove. The great bulk of the cooking was done over the fireplace. The bulk of the wood was sagebrush, greasewood. Later they went to the canyons for wood when the canyon roads were opened. A good deal of the bread was cooked in dutch ovens over the fire place.
Bread The first kind of bread I remember was salt rising bread. That was good bread especially in milk. When they returned from bringing in the poor, they brought in saleratus and they used this for soda biscuit and corn cakes. Then later came the growers yeast. They had to keep it up so it was a usual thing for a number of the women to keep it and tAhe rest would take sugar, flour, etc, and get their yeast.
Fire This was before the match. They kept ashes covered and it was not unusual to have people borrow fire. Then later splinters of wood, dipped in sulphur (called sulphur splinters) were used. They were eight or nine inches long and about as large around as a pencil. An old lady named Heward made them and sold them as sulphur sticks. Then later the telegraph matches made of phosphorus. This was dangerous to the one making them.
Furniture A cherished rocker may have been brought with them across the plains. Nearly all home-made. Henry Pearson made the first furniture. Some furniture came from Sanpete. Henry Pearson made a good deal of the furniture - chairs, tables, desks, stands, beds, etc. Ropes fastened on pegs and threaded both ways served as springs, and straws or corn husks in ticks. Head and foot boards came later. In early days many did not have beds or tables and used boxes. Some had pretty good furniture, having picked it up, a piece at a time.
Organ The first organ that was ever in Draper was bought by father and mother for my sister Rosella Jane who married Mr. Wadley. It was a Shaniger Organ costing $200-$300. This was after the railroad.
Sewing Nearly all women made quilts. At first, all the sewing was done by hand. In our home, the work was done by mother; she spun the wool into yarn and then wove the cloth from which she made our troussers (sic), shirts, dresses, coats, etc. We never had anything but what came from the sheep. We children used to sew rags, then it was woven into cloth, carpets and blankets. Mother wove carpets for the stairs. The first sewing machine I remember was one Brother Stewart bought and it was just a chain stitch - like sacks are sewed. Mrs. Ellen Green did lots of weaving: also Lizzie Day, Elizabeth Enniss, Mary Katherine Smith, Allen and girls.
Before analyn dyes came out, they used a great deal of madder for dyeing. Lots of our cloth was called sheep gray; made by mixing black and white wool. The making of men's clothing depended upon the housewife.
Lye Every home burned wood and had a leach where all the ashes were saved from which lye was made - used for cleaning, washing and when there wasn't sufficient ashes, they went up to the hills, burned grease wood and would bring the ashes home to make soap if they had grease, if not they just used the lye. To make the lye, they built a place with wood boards about like a square stove, at the bottom they placed a pan or something to catch the lye. Water was run from the top through the ashes.
Lighting Before lamps acetelyn and electric lights, they had dip candles made by twisting string then dipped it into tallow grease until it was size desired. Then candle molds were used. String for wicks, place in molds, then the tallow poured in and allowed to set, then the knots at the bottom were cut and the molds dipped into hot water, and presto, they slipped out. Everyone made candles who had tallow.
Sheep Sheep furnished cloth, a good deal of meat, soap, lights, shoe grease and sheep skin rugs. Sheep skins were tanned and used by the men to make leggons. Heber C. Kimball, I think, was the first tanner. The beef hides were used for ropes.
Cows Cows furnished milk, butter, cheese and leather. Thomas Vawdrey made shoes, also another man but cannot remember his name. Then Charles Peterson and later Bloomsterburg. About 1870, a shoe shop was established in the store room where Rideout's is now. This shop was established in connection with the cooperative store. After railroad, shoes were shipped in.
Sickness Socks were put around the neck for sore throats fat bacon in extreme cases. In sickness, people helped each other. Aunt Betsy Draper (wife of Bis. William Draper) was midwife (one of the first). Dr. Rogers, an army doctor, Doctor Maggie and Mary Catherine Shipp, later Hannah Vawdrey Burnham, and still later Dr. Anderson and Stigall. We had a measle epidemic about 92 years ago (1864) followed by extreme epidemic of Scarlet Fever. Then when I was a young man, a diptheria epidemic arose in 1877 or 1878 and no quarantine was had. About thirty died. I remember being vaccinated in 1867 or 1869. Herbs used yarrow for fever wild sage and choke cherries.
Death In the early days, we did not have undertakers. Coffins were made by carpenters out of native lumber. Many of them were made by Henry Pierson (Editor note: & John P. Wright) without any charge. A little later straw was used. There was very little expense. The sisters came to the house and made the clothing. No expense even for digging the graves. Norman Brown dug more graves than any other man.
Stores Ann Fitzgerald first ran a small store along north wall of fort. Then David O. Rideout, Sr. He handled pork and grain, etc, given in exchange for his goods. This store was located near southeast corner of old fort. Then Draper Coop, a stock company owned by the people. Later Bennie Green started a store where George Whitman apartments now stand. Later Benjamin Green was put to run the coop. Later the management of the store didn't agree and they put Mary Lupton to run the store and Green came back and reopened his store which he ran until he died. After the Coop, Isaac Stewart and Lewis Garff started a store where Rasmussen's now is. Then Peter and Soren Rasmussen started a store in the same location. Rideout bought them out. Then the next thing that came along was the establishment of the M & M C (Merc & Mfg Co.) still on the Rasmussen corner, that outgrew the room and Will White ran it and the old Benjamin Green corner was purchased and a store building erected. This was where the Whitman apartments now are. This later was closed out.
Butcher Shop in Fort Suppose I had a beef and turned it in and it was killed and divided. Then the next week someone else did the same. Then if you couldn't furnish a beef, you could buy it at what it cost.
Dairy Cooler Known as Draper-Riverton Dairy Cooperative & Stock Company, erected a dairy in the river, bottom on the north side of the bridge. They had all the modern machinery for making butter, cheese and other dairy products about 1895-96. Stock owned about ½ and ½ between Riverton and Draper. They were still operating in 1906-07 or 09. It was later sold out.
Cattle Coop herd run here. At one time, Draper one of the biggest sheep centers in state. J. W. Fitzgerald, Heber A. Smith, Jackson Allen, Aurelius and Frank Fitzgerald and W. B. Enniss.
Molasses I. M. Stewart and A. W. Smith, then John Enniss; Joshua Terry, then P. N. Garff each had a mill. Later John and Manassa Fitzgerald each had a mill.
Meat Majority was beef, pork and mutton. George Bankhead, an early settler here about 1852, had a smoke house and Negroes to run it.
Fruits and vegetables All vegetables and fruits either dried or preserved in molasses. Preserves made of molasses were put in five-gallon cans.
Johnston's Army Those who went were Jos. S. Rawlins, Henry Day, Norman Brown, Guernsey Brown, John Enniss, A. J. Allen, John Enniss and others detailed to come back from Alpine and irrigate crops. Henry Day was officer in territory.
Militia Frank Johnson, Tom Stokes, Jun Terry, Roan Palmer in militia.
Pony Express Guards, C. C. Burnham, Jos. Terry, Wm. C. Allen about 1862-63. Jos. S. Rawlins went back three times for emigrants.
Diary of A. J. Allen
April 2 Gave in the report of what we had done. It was accepted by the people.
April 26 I spent the day helping to lay out the city. Brothers Enniss, I. M. Stewart, A. M. Smith, Henry Day later on handled the business. J. Z. Stewart was selected to draw deeds. Probate judge in 1876 given power to enter lands for townsite purposes. Draper townsite entered under these conditions by Elias A. Smith, probate judge. Townsite laid out by Jesse W. Fox. The lots were sold and a majority of the lots were numbered and the people who wanted to buy any lots drew the numbers. The lots not taken that way were later sold by the agent."
Schools School entertainment held Friday afternoon. When Dr. Park was here, he established the idea of children, also the older ones, would write compositions to him and then he would select with the aid of some of the older pupils to go over them and correct and select the very best and they would be copied in what was called the school paper and then on Friday afternoon that paper would be read to the school. After the trustees would speak. Often the rest of the afternoon would be spent in a spelling bee. This custom was followed by J. Z. Stewart. These papers were kept in sort of a library. It was interesting to parents as well as teachers. It was the wonderful afternoon of the week.
Trees and orchards A ten-acre apple orchard, where H. J. Smith now lives, was planted by Ebenezer Brown, first settler and known as Brown's Orchard - used for town celebrations, etc. William R. Terry planted an orchard where Al Terry lived. Peaches were seedlings and they were killed in winter. John S. Smith was one of the first men to plant apple trees. Peaches were planted in 1863.
The Farm and Garden Club Out of the building of better homes, came the planting of trees and they organized "The Farm and Garden Club". They had a library of about fifty volumes dealing with history and general questions along with agriculture and fruit-growing. Juo Heward was secretary. Members were Joshua Terry, Lauritz Smith, I. M. Stewart, Andrew J. Burnham, Niels Boberg, Robert Shipley, Andrew Jackson Allen, Peter Garff and others. In the orchards they planted various kinds of apples, peaches, pears, black walnut, hazel nuts, Japanese Philbert, almonds.
William R. Terry in 1852 brought seeds of sweet apple and peach trees from the east and planted on his farm; the peaches died. John Enniss planted first Lombardy Poplar. Cuttings from this tree scattered all over the country. Black locust planted from seeds. Sweet cottonwood trees in front of home brought from Missouri. Native trees were brought from canyons and planted along the streams. Mulberry trees were planted in 1663-69.
Adobe made for Henry Day, William R. Terry - Warm Springs. Best came from Dunyon Springs. John S. Smith built an adobe house of two rooms; one of block adobe in 1852. Here the first boy was born in Draper (William Smith), son of John B. Smith and Jane Wadley Smith. Afterwards they moved to Kaysville.
Furniture in School We had long benches, some twelve feet, others fourteen feet long. Smaller children had low benches and some of the larger ones furnished own tables. A few desks were furnished. School room was heated with wood-burning stoves. The school teacher was janitor. Men from community brought wood. Older boys cut wood. Before school started, teacher selected two or three girls to sweep and two boys to move benches and tables. The teacher made the fires in the morning.
School Parties The school occasionally gave a party. Dances usually left to church or family groups. Later they would select pupils from the school and have theatricals and songs. There was quite a lot of that done.
School Items We had no equipment in schools like they have now. I think it was Dr. Park who sent east and got some charts for the smaller ones to learn their A-B-C's. The first blackboard was very small. It was used to post notices more than for use. There were no wall maps. They came in about time of Dr. Park and were used later on. We did not study geography like they do now.
Dr. Park and Henry Piersen (early pioneer) make a globe showing sun and moon arranged so the earth could turn and show how the sun and moon acted.
Irrigation Prior to the incorporation of the Draper Irrigation Company, March 1888, the mountain streams were owned by the settlers in the district. Ownership in 1860 in Middle Dry Creek, Antic Dry Creek, a spring called Rocky Head, Big Willow, Little Willow Creek and Bear Canyon.
In 1862, one half of North Dry Creek was purchased from a man by name of Merrill. The old system of turns prevailed prior to incorporation, some of the Fitzgerald's, Vawdrey's and Smith's settled on Little Willow and Dry Creek. They began taking water that belonged to other people and it caused quite a bit of feeling. After the incorporation, the directors decided it was best to sell these streams to these parties. They sold Bear Canyon for $300 and Little Willow for $300.
When we incorporated, we included these streams in our articles and they signed the Articles of Incorporation. Just as soon as they signed the articles, they then acknowledged the rights of the corporation to these streams. Then the corporation said, "Now you will pay for these streams what you agreed to pay." They finally paid $300.00 for each stream.
Later, Bear and Little Willow incorporated separately. In 1907. the owner of Bear Canyon put in a pipe line that furnished water to many homes in the community. They furnished water to people at a dollar a month. John W. Smith, A. J. Nelson and B. R. Meeks were in charge of this. This company also furnished water to homes in Crescent and Riverton.
Some of the owners moved to Riverton and bought most of the stock and took the water over to Riverton. Just as soon as they left, Draper Corporation raised the price to $2.00 per month. One dollar per month was a good investment had they made collections.
Amusements We had dances and home dramatics. We used vestry to old meeting house as stage. Where the wall had been, they had curtains, two feet higher than where people sat. We had an old charcoal burner for light.
D. O. Rideout and wife, Mary Ann Terry, Annie Brown and many others took part. They had a dramatic company. They charged gentlemen twenty-five cents or sometimes a peck of wheat. One incident J. P. Terry did not have any money. He went up to Crosgrove's and asked Budd's oldest sister to go with him. He caught one of his mother's ducks and paid his dance ticket with that.
Later, after Rideout built large store and upper story was used entirely for a dance hall; occasionally we had a theatrical. Their scenery was painted by George Newbold, an Englishman.
Dance Music John Boulter and Sam Frost, Pigell and Joseph Orgill played for dancing. The callers, as long as I can remember, was William Boulder. He was considered the best in the county. Square dances had a pretty good run. About that time, Gus and William Ballard took over furnishing music for the dances and in doing that they introduced new figures square dances, Bell, French Four, sacillian and some others. They added to these, the Scottish, waltz. Then the authorities came out and tabooed waltzes. We went back to square dances.
L. R. Smith and W. B. Enniss visited Cannon. They were going to have a party and we were invited and we went to the Seventy Ward Meeting House and we had been prohibited round dances in our own ward. They had nothing but round dances. Opened dances by prayer. Some got drunk but not so bad. Twenty-five or thirty thinned out one time. Then they were asked to come back.
The Don'ts in Dances No one allowed with hats no one allowed to stand. No one allowed who had been drinking Don't waist swing.
Dances started and 7:30 or 8 o'clock. We danced until eleven o'clock, then had lunch and had games during recess, then came back and danced until two or three a.m.
Weddings Were similar to what they are now. When young people thought they were in love, they either went to Endowment House or went to some elder and at that time, there was no law making it necessary to get a marriage license.
About 1894, there were complaints about church performing polygamous marriages and the United States passed a law requiring all couples to get marriage licenses. We often had marriages in private homes. The immediate families on each side and friends and some young friends. We had games, dancing, singing. Girl opened up presents. Any elder in the church could and did perform marriage ceremonies. Now, only the Bishop has the right, providing the individuals bring licenses.
Sleigh-riding parties and surprise parties Eats etc were furnished by the guests, instead of the families making arrangements for birthdays. Friends would arrange surprise. Sometimes people who had fine teams and sleighs would invite people to go sleigh riding. Big crowds would go. Women had quilting bees. We had candy pulls as long ago as molasses was made.
Church Activities Up to the time of the Young men and Young Women's Mutual Improvement Association, before Sunday School was organized, we had meetings in the morning. Ann Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Enniss, and Hannah Heward were first to start Sunday School. They got authority to hold in old meeting house. It was the first one they had here. It was very small at first.
No political activities Bishop and counselors handled Fourth of July. Inasmuch as they appointed people to take charge, Bishop appointed floor manager. James Green for many years was responsible for behavior. On the fourth and twenty-fourth of July celebrations, as soon as it was light, they fired salutes. J. M. Smith used to attend to artillery. Then Nephi Smith did. One of the best parades we had, we celebrated on the twenty-fourth. D. O. Rideout, W. B. Enniss and George Terry had to raise the fund to meet expenses. Got plenty of funds. They generally commenced with a ten o'clock meeting, song Star Spangled Banner other songs generally read Declaration of Independence, local talent took part, then a talk on national conditions and what we owed the Government. The idea was to promote loyalty to the flag. Then came the parade with band and consisted of anything that people felt they wanted to put into it. They went around the town, then gathered at the park, probably stay for an hour, then come back to the start place. At the park, the entertainment would continue. George Terry, half-breed Indian, would play chief. At night we would have a big dance. At park we would have horse-racing, wood-chopping contests, lunch in groups or sometimes all together.
Old Folks The first gathering in Draper Ward first held February 28, 1898, called Old Folk's Day. I think we were the first ward in the church to hold and set apart a day annually for old folks. All people over sixty were entertained. The first committee of the Old Folk's was W. B. Enniss, chairman, Willard L. Snow, Joseph Orgill, Sarah Snow, Sarah Burnham, Wm. C. Allen. The church through the presiding Bishopric had established Old Folk's Day prior to this time. William L. Snow was really the instigator.
In our first gathering, we tried to make the old pioneers as conspicuous as we could. We went all over town and got pictures of older people and nearly covered the walls of the meeting house. No programs planned, only as the old folks were called. All under sixteen, unless they were active in the program, were not allowed. Waiters - all young people. Just as many men as women attended. Had a choir. Someone talked about early times, some sang. They were all served with hot dinner. Then in the afternoon, they had a program by local talent or chose central committee invited from church.
Politics We had a people's party up to about time of raid, then the Liberal Party came in. Liberals were outsiders. People's party were mostly church people. Liberal Party disbanded after statehood. Later Republican and Democrats came in. In 1896, it was the first time the people had a right to vote for a president of the United States. That man was William Jennings Bryan.
First the pony express followed by stage coach. We had one stable back of Lew Dunyon's place and one at point of mountain. The saloon was run by Alma Smith, brother of Heber A. Smith and in 1872 by R. R. Terminus.